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2016-09-23 10:33:52|  分类: 【课内英语】 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Unit Six  Quality

Reading A

A Smashing Way to Start a Global Business

1   At one time, there was hammer in a glass case in the boardroom at Haier. The hammer has been removed to the new corporate museum. Although the story has been frequently told, it is still a good way to explain the remarkable company that Zhang Ruimin has created over the years.

2   The Qingdao Refrigerator Plant was close to failure when Mr. Zhang was sent in at the end of 1984. Production at the time was at a low ebb, and there was no money to pay the staff. Mr. Zhang borrowed some cash, and set about seeing what could be done to save the company. Pretty soon, Mr. Zhang was confronted with complaints from refrigerator buyers. In response, he gathered the workers in a yard outside the plant, and smashed 76 substandardfridges to pieces in front of them with the hammer. A quality quest to revive the plant started from that symbolic hammer attack. And it worked!

3   Another striking Haier innovation is “catfish management”. It is explained as follows. In the sea, a lone catfish creates a disturbance when it swims near a school of other kinds of fish. Live salmon are transported to market with a catfish in the tank in order to keep them active and lively. Haier gives each of its many division bosses a “catfish” shadow manager, who is ready to take over if the man or woman in charge falters. If three months of missed targets should occur, the catfish disposes the leader he or she has been shadowing.

4   When Zhang Ruimin was busy creating waves at Haier in the 1980s and 1990s, the great Chinese industrial revolution was changing the whole global landscape. The country was becoming the industrial production house for the world, but most new Chinese companies were making things that were designed and ordered by Western companies. Haier wanted to export its own goods— quite a different philosophy.

5   Haier’s export strategy was also unusual when the company started to sell in well-developed, tough Western markets, like Germany.

6   Mr. Zhang said, “We tried an experiment. We put German products together to let people see which were Haier products. After a good while, they couldn’t find any difference. Most Chinese companies would choose the other way; the easy markets first and then the more difficult ones later, and people thought we were crazy.”

7   Zhang wanted to set the standards high, and thus force Haier to solve all the problems and to meet those high standards. His story reminds us of the old Chinese saying: “If you want to play chess, you need to play it with the master,” because that’s the only way you learn.



1    在海尔公司董事会会议室的玻璃展示柜中曾经放着一把铁锤。这把铁锤后来陈列在海尔公司新建的公司博物馆中。尽管对这个铁锤的故事人们已经耳熟能详,但是对于由张瑞敏创立的这家非同凡响的公司来说,它依然是一个良好的注脚。

2     1984年,当张瑞敏被委派接手青岛冰箱厂时,这家工厂已经濒临倒闭,生产处于低谷,工厂根本没钱支付员工工资。张瑞敏筹借了一些资金,并开始着手想办法拯救工厂。上任伊始,张瑞敏就收到了很多冰箱用户的投诉。作为回应,张瑞敏将工人们召集到工厂外的一块空地上,并当着他们的面把76台不合格的冰箱砸碎。这具有象征意义的一砸开启了海尔公司通过质量提升来重振工厂的战略。事实证明,这个战略是有效的。

3    海尔公司另外一个引人注目的创新是鲶鱼管理。对于这种管理模式,人们是这样解释的:在大海中,当鲶鱼游近一群其他鱼类时,往往会制造一阵骚乱。当人们用大桶运输马哈鱼到市场销售时,里面往往会放一条鲶鱼,这样做的目的是迫使马哈鱼不停游动来保持鲜活。海尔公司给每个部门主管配备了一个鲶鱼式的影子经理,其作用就是,当部门主管不能胜任时随时会被替换。如果部门主管连续三个月无法完成任务目标,影子经理将接任。

4    上世纪8090年代,当张瑞敏在海尔公司进行热火朝天的改革时,中国工业革命的大潮也正在改变着全球经济格局。中国正日益成为世界工厂,但大多数新兴的中国公司仅仅局限于生产由西方公司设计和订购的产品。海尔希望出口它自己的产品,这是一种截然不同的思路。

5     海尔公司的出口战略与众不同,这表现在它首先选择进入类似德国这样成熟而竞争激烈的西方市场。

6     张瑞敏曾讲过:我们曾经做过一个实验,将德国产品放在一起让消费者辨别哪个是海尔产品,结果看了半天,他们依然没有发现两种产品有什么不同。大部分中国公司在开发国际市场时会从容易开发的市场开始,然后慢慢开始开发一些难度大的市场,所以当我们选择了一种相反的道路时,大家都认为我们疯了。

7     张瑞敏希望通过制定高标准来推动海尔解决所有这些问题,从而最终达到这些高标准。他的故事让我们联想起一句古老的中国名言:弈棋还须找高手,因为这是学习进步的唯一方法。

Reading B

Quality Control Process

    Quality is not only an attitude, but also an established system. Through strict procedures, our engineers keep control of quality throughout every step of production.

    We divide the quality control process into three separate processes, which ensures that specialized professional knowledge is applied to each stage of our operation.

 外研社:《新职业英语》(第二版)第二册第6单元课文翻译 - 大地 - zjhzlzp的博客

     Incoming Quality Control

       The IQC process conducts inspections and deals with quality problems before the production process starts.

       Specific tasks of IQC include:

    ● Perform sampling of incoming materials;

    ● Perform visual and functional inspection of material samples;

    ● Keep track of quality control chart of inspected materials;

    ● Inform engineering staff of major deviations.

    In-Process Quality Control

    The IPQC process controls the quality systems during the assembly process in order to detect and deal with problems that may come up as a result of assembly.

    Specific tasks of IPQC include:

    ● Perform inspections on assembled and in-process materials;

    ● Use statistical control techniques and watch for major deviations;

    ● Perform in-process checks to ensure processes are up to standard.

    Outgoing Quality Assurance

    OQA is the last process before products are delivered to customers, and therefore is very important to ensure our shipment is defect-free. Numerous redundancies with IQC and IPQC are performed here to ensure the validity of previous processes.

    Specific tasks of OQA include:

    ● Perform visual and functional inspection;

    ● Apply sampling based on industry standards;

    ● Conduct reliability testing;

    ● Submit failure analysis reports and inform engineering staff.






 外研社:《新职业英语》(第二版)第二册第6单元课文翻译 - 大地 - zjhzlzp的博客


    IQC 的任务是负责生产过程开始之前的检验及质量问题的处理。

    IQC 的具体任务包括:





过程质量检验 (IPQC)

IPQC 程序控制装配过程中的质量体系,以便检查并处理装配过程中可能出现的问题。

IPQC 的具体任务包括:




成品质量检验 (OQA

OQA 是产品送交客户前的最后一个过程,因此确保发出的货物没有瑕疵至关重要。在这里要进行进料质量检验(IQC)和过程质量检验 (IPQC) 的多次复检,以确保前两个过程的有效性。

OQA 的具体任务包括:






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